PDF format This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable. First, size the motor to the application but, just as importantly, understand the characteristics of the major types of single-phase motors — characteristics that go right to the heart of matching a motor to an application. In general, an ac polyphase squirrelcage motor connected to a polyphase line will develop starting torque. A squirrelcage motor connected to a single-phase line develops no starting torque, but having been started by some external means, it runs approximately like a polyphase motor.
The many types of single-phase motors are distinguished mostly by the means by which they are started. It has two windings: The main winding, of heavier wire, keeps the motor running the rest of the time. In most cases, it is a centrifugal switch on the motor shaft. However, it also limits performance. Other split-phase motor characteristics: Plus, thermal protection is difficult because the high locked-rotor current relative to running current makes it tricky to find a protector with trip time fast enough to prevent start-winding burnout.
And, these motors usually are designed for single voltage, limiting application flexibility. Avoid applications requiring high cycle rates or high torque. Like the split-phase motor, the capacitor- start motor also has a starting mechanism, either a mechanical or solid-state electronic switch. This allows higher cycle rates and reliable thermal protection.
But the application range is much wider because of higher starting torque and lower starting current. Use the motors on a wide range of belt-drive applications like small conveyors, large blowers and pumps, and many direct-drive or geared applications. These are the workhorses of general-purpose industrial motors. Permanent split capacitor A permanent split capacitor PSC motor, Figure 3 , has neither a starting switch nor a capacitor strictly for starting.
Instead, it has a run-type capacitor permanently connected in series with the start winding. This makes the start winding an auxiliary winding once the motor reaches running speed. Because the run capacitor must be designed for continuous use, it cannot provide the starting boost of a starting capacitor. Breakdown torque varies depending on design type and application, though it is typically somewhat lower than with a capstart motor. PSC motors have several advantages.
They need no starting mechanism and so can be reversed easily. Designs can be easily altered for use with speed controllers. They can also be designed for optimum efficiency and high power factor at rated load. Permanent split capacitor motors have a wide variety of applications depending on the design. These include fans, blowers with low starting-torque needs, and intermittent cycling uses such as adjusting mechanisms, gate operators, and garage-door openers, many of which also need instant reversing.
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